he was a great and venerable companion, one of the most knowledgeable and virtuous oh people and one of the best of the beat of the companions in following the example of the Messenger. He did not change or substitute anything after the Messenger of Allah died, in fact, he said: I took the oath of allegiance to the Messenger of Allah and I did not violate it nor did I alter anything to this day. And in spite of the fact that he was descended from one of the noblest of families, what raised him to this exalted level was not his lineage, what raised him were his deeds, his diligence, his striving and his sincerity in calling to Allah.
Who he is
He is Abdullah bin Umar bin Al-Khattab, his mother was Zainab bint Maz`un and his maternal uncle was the great and venerable companion, Uthman bin Maz`un. His father was the great and venerable companion and one of the rightly-guided Caliphs who was a shining example of fairness and a vigorous upholder of the truth, and he bears a high rank and outstanding virtues, as transmitted by the books of Seerah and the books written about him.
The Messenger of Allah said of him: if there were to be a Prophet after me, it would have been Umar bin Al-Khattab. And it is reported on the authority of Aishah the the Prophet said:I see the devils among the jinn and mankind fleeing from Umar. His son, Abdullah was born in the third year following the start of the Prophet’s mission.
His acceptance of Islam
When Umar bin Al-Khattab pronounced the Shahadatan in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, the companionsraised their voices glorifying Allah. But some of the companions advised him to keep his Islam a secret, he said: by Allah, I will proclaim my Islam as I used to proclaim my disbelief, bin Umar said that when Umar bin Al-Khattab embraced Islam, he asked: which of the people of Makkah is the best at spreading news? They said: Jamil bin Ma`mar Al- Jamhi. So Umar wet out and followed him and I was a young boy who understood everything that was said the he came to him and said: Oh, Jamil! Do you know that l have embraced Islam? By Allah, he did not reply to these words, but stood up and raced off and Omar followed behind him and I went with him, until he stood at the door of the Mosque and cried out:Oh, people of Quraish! Umar has apostatized ! He said: you have lied, but I have embraced Islam.
bin Umar was a good soul, which was still upon the natural state(Fitrah) in which Allah created it and so it was ready to receive the new religion. He used to hear about Muhammad, his truthfulness and his trustworthiness, and his soul was filled with wonder by the personality of Muhammad, which no one mentioned except to say good things about it, so when his father embraced Islam , his young son felt that a heavy stone which had been blocked the way to his proclaiming his conversion to Islam had been remover and he embraced Islam while still at a young age and he become a good Muslim may Allah pleased with him and may He pleased him.
His Love for the Messenger in and His Obedience to Him
Ibn 'Umar was one of the best of the Companions in following the example of the Messenger. And truly love causes one to follow the example of the beloved, for Allah, the Most High has said to Muhammad : ''Say (0 Muhammad of to mankind): If you (really) love Allah, then follow me (i.e., accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Quran and the Sunnah), Allah will love you and forgive your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful .
lbn 'Umar did understood the true meaning of this his love for the Messenger of Allah a was converted into absolute obedience. He used to do as the Messenger of Allah did and carry out whatever he commanded him to do and abstain from whatever he forbade him from doing. Indeed, he used to follow the footsteps of the Messenger of Allah , go wherever he went, sit wherever he sat and preach wherever he preached. If he preached sitting in that place, he would also preach sitting in it and if he preached standing there, he would do likewise. If the Messenger of Allah a sat beneath a tree, then lbn 'Umar must also sit beneath the tree as Muhammad Sat.
It is reported on the authority of Nafi' that Ibn 'Umar Utah used to follow the footsteps of the Messenger of Allah and pray in every place where he prayed, to the extent that the Prophet sat beneath a tree and lbn 'Umar used to care for that tree and pour water over its roots so that it would not become dry. He did not only sit beneath the tree underneath which the Messenger of Allah used to sit, rather, he used to care for it by watering it.
Nafi reported on the authority of Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah said: ''lf we left this door for the women'' Nafi' said: ''After that, Ibn 'Umar never entered by that door until the day he died.
The other Companions noticed Ibn 'Umar's imitation of the Messenger of Allah's actions, including 'Aishah, who said: ''No one followed in the footsteps of the Prophet in more closely than Ibn 'Umar did.
Due to the great pains he took in following the actions of the Messenger of Allah, he would go to a place which the Messenger of Allah had passed by and in which he had unintentionally pulled on his camel's halter, causing it to turn around once or twice and he would turn with his camel in the same place in which the Messenger of Allah's camel had turned, in hope that he would retrace its steps.
His Continued Adherence to the Pledge
Ibn 'Umar, continued to demonstrate his love for the Prophet after his death and whenever he was mentioned, his eyes would fill with tears; Asim bin Muhammad Al-Amri narrated from his father that he said: ''Whenever l heard lbn 'Umar mention the Prophet, he would weep.
He was extremely careful not to misquote the Messenger of Allah , or to add or omit anything from his sayings.
He did not change after the death of the Messenger of Allah , so much so that one of his contemporaries| said in his supplication: ''Oh, Allah! Keep 'Abdullah bin 'Umar alive for as long as l live, so that 1 can amulet: him, for l do not know of anyone else who adheres so closely to what the Messenger of Allah of and his Companions used to follow.
And 'Aishah ' said: ''I have not seen anyone who adhered more closely to the Sunnah of the Prophet' and his Companions than lbn 'Umar.'' And he continued to discharge his obligation: and to imitate the Prophet in t until the day he parted from this temporary abode. This is why Ibn Al-Musayyab said: ''On the day he died, Ibn 'Umar was the best of those who remained.''
He refused to accept the Post of Judge
The Caliph Uthman ordered 'Abdullah bin 'Umar to take up the post of judge, saying: ''Judge between the people's But lbn 'Umar said: ''1 will not judge between two persons, nor will I lead two persons in payer. 'Uthman said: ''Do you disobey men? He said: ''No, but l have been informed that judges are of three types: a man who judges with ignorance and he will be in the Fire, a man who deals unjustly and according to his whim and he will be in the Fire and a man exercises juristic reasoning (Ijtihad) and he is just he has no reward and there is no burden upon him. ‘Uthman replied: ''Your father used to judged He said: ''My father used to judge and when he was not sure about something, he would ask the Prophet ; and when he was not sure about it, he would ask Gabriel, but l find no one to ask. Did you not hear the Prophet say that whoever sought refuge with Allah has sought a fitting refuge? 'Uthman said: ''Yes.'' 'Abdullah bin 'Umar said: ''Then I seek refuge with Allah from you appointing me as a judged, so 'Uthman excused him, but he said: ''Do not inform anyone of this.'
He also refused to accept any Position of Authority
It is reported on the authority of 'Umar bin Nafi' from his father, from lbn 'Umar '' that he said: 'Ali sent for me and said: ''Oh, Abu 'Abdur-Rahman! You are a man who is obeyed by the people of Ash-sham, so go there, for l have appointed you as governor over theme. But l said: ''Let me remind you by Allah of my kinship to the Messenger of Allah a and my close companionship with him and therefore, would you excuse me? He refused to excuse me and so I brought Hafsah to plead on my behalf, but he refused. So I set out by night for Makkah. And he was heard to say while he was prostrating: ''You know, my Lord, that nothing prevents me from competing with Quraish for the life of this world except fear of You.'
He was extremely ascetic regarding the life of this world; we have seen how he refused appointments as an administrator and a judge. And he was not happy with his wealth unless he gave it in charity. And it was said that he would sometimes go for a whole month without eating meat. It is reported on the authority of Jabir that he said: "I have not seen, or Ihave not observed anyone who Was not swayed by the life of this world or inclined towards it, except 'Abdullah bin 'Umar.''
On one occasion, the slave of 'Abdullah bin 'Umar arrived from lraq and he came to give salutations to him and he said: 'I have brought you a gift. Ibn 'Umar asked: ''And what is it? He replied: ''Jawarish.'' He asked: ''And what is Jawarish?'' He said: ''It helps the digestion of food'. Ibn 'Umar said: ''I have not filled my stomach with food for forty years, so what will I do with it?
One of those who loved him, whose name was bazaar said: I observed Ibn 'Umar wearing coarse garments and I said to him: ''Oh Abu 'Abdura Rahman! 1 have brought you a soft garment which was made in Khurasan, and it would please me to see you wearing it, for truly, the clothes you are wearing are rough He said: ''Show it to me, so that 1 may examine it's So he felt it then he asked: ''Is this Silk? I replied: ''No it is cotton He said: ''1 fear to wear it; I fear that 1 will become arrogant and proud and Allah loves not prideful boasters.' It was also said that the value of all of the furniture in his house did not equal a hundred Dirham. He had understood the life of this world and he had rejected it and he understood the life of the Hereafter and he strove to achieve it. He used to say: ''What have l to do with the life of this world? My relationship to it is no more than that of a man who seeks shade under a tree, then he leaves it and moves on.
He used to restrain His Tongue from speaking Evil restrain It is reported on the authority of Salim: ''Ibn Umar never reviled a slave except on one occasion and after that, he manumitted him. Indeed,so careful was lbn 'Umar in guarding his tongue that he would not reply even to one who reviled him. It is reported on the authority of Zaid bin Aslam that a man began to revile lbn 'Umar, but he remained silent. Then when he reached the door of his house, he turned to him and said: ''1 and my brother 'Asim we do not revile anyone.
His Kindness and Generosity
lbn 'Umar upon was kind and generous and would not refuse any petitioner and he would distribute charity as one who did not fear poverty, seeking thereby the reward which is with Allah, as he preferred the life of the Hereafter over the life of this world. Nafi' said: ''Anything of lbn 'Umar's property which pleased him, he would give away. Once, when he was travelling on his camel, he began to admire it and made it kneel down. Then he said: ''Oh, Nafi'! Remove its saddle and tie it up. And he placed it among his camels. And Ayub bin wa`il said: ''Abdullah came with ten thousand dirhams and he distributed them, then he sought feed for his camel worth one dirham on credit.
lbn 'Umar would not eat unless there were poor and needy persons sitting with him at his table who would eat with him. Nafi' said.. ''Before he died, Ibn Umar had freed a thousand or more s1aves.''
lbn 'Umar used to worship Allah much and he was God-fearing; he would stand in prayer at night often and he would fast much and he performed Hajj many times and remembered Allah frequently. For this reason, Ibn Al-Musayyab said: ''If I were to testify that anyone was one of the people of Paradise, it would be Ibn 'Umar.'' And it was said to Nafi': ''What did lbn 'Umar used to do in his house? He replied: ''You cannot do it; he used to perform ablution for every prayer and read the Quran between the ablution and the prayer.
Ibn 'Umar did not use to fast when he was traveling and he used to fast frequently when at home. He used to sleep at night like a bird; he would sleep for a while, then he would get up and pray, then he would sleep, then get up and pray and he would do this four or five times during the night.
lbn 'Umar would go to the market even though he did not want to buy or sell anything and he would deliver salutations of peace to everyone he met. When he was asked about this, he said: ''We only go out in order to greet the people with salutations of peace.
From a young age, 'Abdullah bin 'Umar use was keenly interested to fight the enemies of Allah, for he realized, in spite of his youth, he realized the high status accorded by Allah to those who strive in His Cause and those who are martyred. For this reason, he set out to fight while he was still not of adult age.
In the Battle of Badr, when the Muslims set out to fight the disbelievers, Ibn 'Umar went with them, due to his keen desire to be a soldier in the army of Muhammad. However, the Messenger of Allah sent him back due to his young age, and he was at that time, no older than ten years.
And when came the time for the Battle of Uhud, he set out desiring again to fight, but he was again sent back by the Messenger of Allah due to his young age with others who had not yet reached puberty.
Then when the time came for the Battle of the Trench, he volunteered to the Messenger of Allah and he was afraid that he would reject him as he done on previous occasions, for he was still a young boy at that time, being only fifteen years old. However, on this occasion the Messenger of Allah a permitted him to fight and 'Abdullah was delighted, because it was now his right to participate in the battle against the enemies of Allah and to defend the true religion.
Abdullah loved to participate in the war in Allah's Cause and he did not cease to perform it after the death of the Messenger of Allah . He was one of the soldiers of Abu Bakr As-siddiq in the wars against the apostates.
lbn 'Umar also took part in battles during the rule of the Caliph 'Umar bin Al-Khattab. And during the Caliphate of 'Uthman bin 'Affan he took part in the conquest of North Africa and witnessed the conquest of Nahawand under the command of Nu`man bin Muqarrin. Then during the rule of Mu'awiyah bin Abi Sufyan , he was with the army which was sent by Mu'awiyah , under the leadership of his son, Yazid, to join up with the army of Sufyan bin 'Awl, who went to fight against Constantinople.
His Knowledge and Understanding of Islamic Jurisprudence
Ibn 'Umar 4 was a scholar with a wide knowledge of Islamic Jurisprudence and he spent his life in acquiring knowledge and memorizing it. Malik said: ''lbn 'Umar lived for sixty years after the death of the Messenger of Allah delivering legal verdicts to the people during the Hajj season and at other times.'' And Malik also said: ''lbn 'Umar was one of the Imams of the Muslims.''
The people used to feel at ease with his legal verdicts, because he was so strict in following what the Messenger of Allah had said and when delivering verdicts, he would always refer to the Book of Allah,
the Most Glorified, the Most High and if he did not find what he wanted, he would refer to Sunnah of the Prophet and if he did not find what he sought there, he would refer to the juristic reasoning of the Companions, and he would follow them if they were unanimous in their view. However, if they differed, he would choose from among their opinions what seemed right to him.
An example of a matter in which the Companions differed and in which Ibn 'Umar exercised his juristic reasoning is found in the narration of 'Amr bin shu`aib,in which it is stated that a thief bored a hole in a store belonging to Ibn Wabash and he was found therein, having collected the things, but he had not left it. Then lbn Az-zubair came and ordered that his hand cut off. Ibn 'Umar (to' passed by and asked what had taken place and he was informed about it, so he went to Az-zubair and said to him: ''Did you order that his hand be cut offer He replied: ''Yes.'' lbn 'Umar said: ''He is not considered to be a thief until he leaves the house with the stolen goods.
He used to attach particular importance to the sayings of the senior Companions, if they conformed with the Quran and Sunnah.
Child Companions around the Prophet 188 It has been reported that a man asked Ibn 'Umar about a one-eyed man whose eye had been removed by mistake. 'Abdullah bin Safwan said: ''Umar bin A1Khattab ruled regarding it that blood money should be paid. The man said: ''I am not asking you, I am asking lbn 'Umar.'' Ibn 'Umar said: ''you are informed by 'Umar and you are asking me?
Az-zuhri said: ''We cannot ignore lbn 'Umar's opinion, because he lived for sixty years after the death of the Messenger of Allah and nothing of his Sunnah was hidden from him, nor that of his companionship
Some of His Supplications
lbn 'Umar used to supplicate Allah much and implore Him; some wordings of his supplications include: ''Oh, Allah! Protect me with Your religion, obedience to You and obedience to Your Messenger; oh, Allah! Keep me away from the limits which You have set; oh, Allah! Make me one of those who love You, who love Your angels and who love Your righteous slaves; oh, Allah! Make me love You, Your angels, Your Messengers and Your righteous slaves; oh, Allah! Smooth for me the path of ease and make me far from difficulty and forgive me in the Hereafter and in this world and make me one of the leaders of the righteous; oh, Allah! You said: 'invoke Me and l will respond to your invocation.' And You do not break Your Promise. Oh, Allah! After You have guided me to Islam, do not turn me away from it and do not turn it away from me, so that You take my soul while I remain firm upon it.'
Some of his Sayings
lbn 'Umar was asked about the right of a friend on a friend, and he said: ''That you be not full, while he is hungry, nor clothed while he is unclothed and that you share your possessions with him during times of hardship and during times of plenty.''
A man said to him: ''Oh, best of people'' or: ''Oh son of the best of people'' Ibn 'Umar use replied: ''1 am not the best of people, or son of the best of people. I am only one of the slaves of Allah, the Most High and I fear Him. By Allah, you would stay with a man until you destroy him.
He also said: 'I took the oath of allegiance to the Messenger of Allah of and I did not violate it nor did I alter anything to this day and l have not pledged allegiance to any person who causes trials, nor have l woken a believer from his sleep (i.e., disturbed or annoyed him.
lbn'Umar said: ''Breaking one's promise is one third of hypocrisy and fulfilling one's promise is one third of faith.
It was said to Ibn 'Umar : ''Zaid bin Haritah has died and left a hundred thousand dirhams.'' He said: ''But they have not left him.
The people loved Ibn 'Umar very much and as we have seen, they considered him to be a perfect example of a Companion who emulated the Messenger of Allah and who neither changed nor substituted anything and whose excellent life story has spread throughout the Islamic world from one end to the other.
In the year of martyrdom, he was in Makkah during the days of Hajj and 'Abdul-Malik bin Marwan was the Umayyid Caliph at the time and he had sent Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf Ath-Thaqafi to lead the Hajj. The Hajj pilgrims were gathered around lbn 'Umar, for in the hearts of the people, he has a high rank. And they had left Al-Hajjaj, although he was in charge of the Hajj.
This cut into the heart of Al-Hajjaj deeply and it did not please him, so he ordered a man who was with him to stab him with a poisoned spear. So when the people dispersed from 'Arafat, the man came close to him and stuck his spear in his foot and he was ill from it for a few days, during which time Al-Hajjaj came to visit him and asked him: ''Who poisoned you, oh, Abu 'Abdur-Rahman?'' Ibn 'Umar asked: ''What will you do with him? Al-Hajjaj replied: ''May Allah kill me if l do not kill him. lbn 'Umar said: ''I do not think that you will do so. It is you who ordered the man who pricked me with a spear. Al-Hajjaj said: ''Why do you say that, may Allah have mercy on you? lbn 'Umar lingered on for a few days, then he died.
On his deathbed, Ibn 'Umar said to his son, Salim: ''Oh, my son! When Idie, bury me outside the Sacred Precincts for I dislike to be buried within them after l migrated from here. He said: ''Oh, my father! We will do so, if we are able to. He said: ''You hear me say something to you, I said Al-Hajjaj will prevail against us and he will pray over you.So he became silent.
He was buried may Allah have mercy on him in the graveyard of the Muhajirun in Fakhkh Dhi Tuwa. He died in the year 73 AH, aged eighty-six years, may Allah have mercy on him.